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制冷剂增压泵冷媒介质的特性

发布时间:2019-03-11 15:36:18   发布人:http://www.sdjingtuo.com
冷媒:氟利昂
Refrigerant: Freon
氟里昂freon)是氟氯代甲烷和氟氯代乙烷的总称,因此又称“氟氯烷”或“氟氯烃”,可用符号“CFC”表示。氟里昂包括20多种化合物,其中常用的是氟里昂-12(化学式CCl2F2),其次是氟里昂-11(化学式CCl3F)。氟里昂是一种性能优秀的冷冻剂,在家用电冰箱和空调机中普遍运用。
Freon is the general name of chlorofluoromethane and chlorofluoroethane, so it is also called "chlorofluoromethane" or "chlorofluorocarbons", which can be expressed by the symbol "CFC". Freon contains more than 20 compounds, the most commonly used of which is Freon-12 (chemical formula CCl2F2), followed by Freon-11 (chemical formula CCl3F). Freon is an excellent refrigerant, which is widely used in household refrigerators and air conditioners.
我国当前主要消费和消费氟里昂-12氟里昂-11氟里昂-113和哈龙-1211哈龙-1301四氯化碳1,1,1-三氯乙烷等7种受控物质
At present, China's main consumption and consumption of seven controlled substances, such as Freon-12 Freon-11 Freon-113 and Halon-1211 Halon-1301 carbon tetrachloride 1,1,1-trichloroethane, etc.
氟里昂是一种透明无味无毒不易熄灭爆炸和化学性稳定的制冷剂。不同的化学组成和结构的氟里昂制冷剂热力性质相差很大,可适用于高温中温和低温制冷机,以顺应不同制冷温度的恳求。
Freon is a transparent, odorless, non-toxic, explosive and chemically stable refrigerant. Freon refrigerants with different chemical compositions and structures have different thermodynamic properties. They can be used in high temperature, medium temperature and low temperature refrigerators to meet the requirements of different refrigeration temperatures.
氟里昂对水的溶解度小,制冷装置中进入水分后会产生酸性物质,并容易构成低温系统的“冰堵”,堵塞节流阀或管道。另外避免氟里昂与自然橡胶起作用,其装置应采用丁晴橡胶作垫片或密封圈。
Freon has low solubility in water. When water enters the refrigeration unit, acidic substances will be produced. It is easy to form "ice jam" in the cryogenic system and block throttle valves or pipes. In addition, to avoid the effect of Freon and natural rubber, the device should use NBR as gasket or sealing ring.
常用的氟里昂制冷剂有R12R22R502及R1341a,由于其他型号的制冷剂往常曾经停用或禁用。在此不做说明。
Freon refrigerants commonly used are R12R22R502 and R1341a, which have been disabled or banned in the past due to other types of refrigerants. No explanation will be given here.
氟里昂
Freon
氟里昂12是氟里昂制冷剂中应用较多的一种,主要以中小型食品库家用电冰箱以及水路冷藏运输等制冷装置中被普遍采用。R12具有较好的热力学性能,冷藏压力较低,采用风冷或自然冷凝压力约0.8-1.2KPa。R12的标准蒸发温度为-29℃,属中温制冷剂,用于中小型活塞式紧缩机可获得-70℃的低温。而对大型离心式紧缩机可获得-80℃的低温。近年来电冰箱的替代冷媒为R134a。
Freon 12 is one of the most widely used refrigerants. It is widely used in household refrigerators in small and medium-sized food stores and refrigeration devices such as water refrigeration and transportation. R12 has good thermodynamic properties and low refrigeration pressure. The air-cooled or natural condensation pressure is about 0.8-1.2KPa. The standard evaporation temperature of R12 is - 29 C, which belongs to medium temperature refrigerant. Low temperature of - 70 C can be obtained for medium and small piston compressors. For large centrifugal compressors, low temperature of - 80 C can be obtained. Recent years, the refrigerant substitute for refrigerator is R134a.
氟里昂
Freon
气体增压泵
氟里昂22是氟里昂制冷剂中应用较多的一种,主要以家用空调和低温冰箱中采用。R22的热力学性能与氨相近。标准气化温度为-40.8℃,通常冷凝压力不超越1.6MPa。R22不燃不爆,运用中比氨安全可靠。R22的单位容积比R12约高60%,其低温时单位容积制冷量和饱和压力均高于R12和氨。近年来对大型空调冷水机组的冷媒大都采用R134a来替代。
Freon 22 is one of the most widely used refrigerants in Freon refrigerants. It is mainly used in household air conditioning and cryogenic refrigerators. The thermodynamic properties of R22 are similar to that of ammonia. The standard gasification temperature is - 40.8 C, and the condensation pressure usually does not exceed 1.6 MPa. R22 is non-flammable and non-explosive. It is safer and more reliable than ammonia in operation. The unit volume of R22 is about 60% higher than that of R12, and its refrigeration capacity and saturation pressure at low temperature are higher than those of R12 and ammonia. In recent years, the refrigerant of large air conditioning chillers is mostly replaced by R134a.
氟里昂
Freon
是由R12R22以51.2%和48.8%的百分比混合而成的共沸溶液。R502与R115R22相比具有更好的热力学性能,更适用于低温。R502的标准蒸发温度为-45.6℃,正常工作压力与R22相近。在相同的工况下的单位容积制冷量比R22大,但排气温度却比R22低。R502用于全封锁半封锁或某些中小制冷装置,其蒸发温度可低达-55℃。R502在冷藏柜中运用较多。
It is an azeotropic solution mixed with R12R22 in 51.2% and 48.8% percentages. Compared with R115R22, R502 has better thermodynamic properties and is more suitable for low temperature. The standard evaporation temperature of R502 is - 45.6 C, and the normal working pressure is similar to that of R22. Under the same conditions, the unit volume refrigeration capacity is larger than that of R22, but the exhaust temperature is lower than that of R22. R502 is used for full blockade, semi-blockade or some small and medium refrigeration units. Its evaporation temperature can be as low as - 55 C. R502 is widely used in refrigerators.
氟里昂
Freon
是一种较新型的制冷剂,其蒸发温度为-26.5℃。它的主要热力学性质与R12相似,不会破坏空气中的臭氧层,是近年来鼓吹的环保冷媒,但会构成温室效应。是比较理想的R12替代制冷剂。
It is a new refrigerant with evaporation temperature of - 26.5 C. Its main thermodynamic properties are similar to those of R12, which will not destroy the ozone layer in the air. It is an environmental friendly refrigerant advocated in recent years, but it will constitute a greenhouse effect. It is an ideal alternative refrigerant for R12.
氟里昂与水的关系
The relationship between freon and water
氟里昂和水几乎完好相互不溶解,对水分的溶解度极小。从低温侧进入装置的水分呈水蒸气状态,它和氟里昂蒸气一同被紧缩而进入冷凝器,再冷凝成液态水,水以液滴壮混于氟里昂液体中,在收缩阀处因低温而冻结成冰,堵塞阀门,使制冷装置不能正常工作。水分还能使氟里昂发作水解而产生酸,使制冷系统内发作“镀铜”现象。
Freon and water are almost insoluble and have very little solubility. The water entering the device from the low-temperature side is in the state of water vapor, which is compressed with the Freon vapor into the condenser, then condensed into liquid water. The water is strong mixed in the Freon liquid with droplets, and frozen into ice at the shrinkage valve due to the low temperature, blocking the valve, so that the refrigeration device can not work properly. Water can also cause the hydrolysis of Freon to produce acid, which can cause the phenomenon of "copper plating" in the refrigeration system.
氟里昂与润滑油的关系
Relation between Freon and Lubricating Oil
普通是易溶于冷冻油的,但在高温时,氟里昂就会从冷冻油内合成出来。所以在大型冷水机组中的油箱里都有加热器,坚持在一定的温度来防止氟里昂的溶解。
Freon is usually soluble in frozen oil, but at high temperatures, it is synthesized from frozen oil. So there are heaters in the fuel tanks of large chillers, which insist on a certain temperature to prevent the dissolution of freon.
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